Wednesday, August 26, 2020
Framework Design Methodology Essay Newbiz Telecommunication Services is an organization that sells cell phones, portable embellishments, prepaid cards and different things identified with media communications and versatile processing industry. The organization expects to build up a framework to deal with its stock needs. This framework will be utilized by the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s staff and the executives to screen the development of its stocks. Among the numerous reasons why the framework is required are: a. The framework empowers the organization to lessen work and paper costs since a considerable lot of the day by day capacities will at that point be mechanized. b. It permits representatives to focus on their employments instead of investing energy in looking through records. c. Human blunders can be diminished for example figuring mistake may prompt wrong charging to the clients. d. It permits the organization to monitor its stock levels as late renewal of stock can bring about inadequate stocks to satisfy client needs. e. The time it takes to process deals to clients can be made quicker. Quicker reaction time implies that offer of things can be immediately shut. f. It presents a decent picture to the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s customers prompting more trust in the organization. This permits it to increase an upper hand over its rival. g. Stock levels can be intently and effortlessly viewed with the new framework as the administration has better power over stock levels. This is on the grounds that stock levels are refreshed each time a deal to client is made and at whatever point new stocks show up. Undertaking Requirement Specification Point: The points of this task are to: * Develop abilities in picking a proper conventional strategy * Develop aptitudes in applying organized procedures that are pertinent to the picked approach * Develop aptitudes in breaking down and recording the prerequisites of a framework * Develop aptitudes in dissecting and creating various perspectives on a framework * Develop abilities in building up a model, with reasonable interface, from origination through to execution * Demonstrate an information on the basic issues of HCI by applying interface structure standards to a model Appraisal The absolute appraisal characteristics of this gathering contextual investigation is 100% (half of generally speaking module marks) Layout of Task: You have been given the undertaking to investigate, plan and build up a model for the given Case Study. Your class will be partitioned into gatherings. Each gathering will include 2 or 3 colleagues. Section A will be a Ã¢â¬ËGroup ComponentÃ¢â¬â¢, to be finished in a communitarian way (60%). Part-B is a Ã¢â¬ËIndividual ComponentÃ¢â¬â¢, to be finished by every individual from the gathering separately (40%). Recommended Presentation Format This task is a collective endeavor and ought to be treated as if you are proposing a framework for an association. Coming up next is a proposed least report position. It is suggested that your report contain at any rate the accompanying: Section A Ã¢â¬ GROUP COMPONENT Spread Page Your spread page ought to contain the standard data, for example, UCTI Logo, Subject Title, System Name, and so forth Chapter by chapter guide The chapter by chapter guide ought to have the theme title and reference page number joined to every subject. Presentation This ought to incorporate your undertaking, the extent of the proposed framework, and the goals for the proposed framework. Timetable Planning Gantt Chart PERT CHART This ought to incorporate your groupÃ¢â¬â¢s plan on this task and the dates and assignments and the mindful gathering member(s) must be remembered for your calendar. This data ought to be appeared in a Gantt outline, PERT Chart and Workload Matrix (test remaining task at hand framework appended). Issue Analysis Current Systems Brief investigation of the current framework including portrayal of the limitations and open doors for the proposed framework. Review Proposed Systems A clarification of how the proposed framework takes care of the current issues and addresses openings. Procedure Model for Proposed Systems Intelligent procedure model 0 Context outline 1 Level 0 DFD 2 Level 1 DFDs for the Level 0 procedures 3 Level 2 DFDs for the Level 1 procedures (assuming any) 4 Process Specification (for example Organized English, Decision Table and Decision Tree) Information Models Proposed Systems Intelligent Data Models: 5 Entity Relationship Diagram, demonstrating named connections, cardinality (compulsory/discretionary), and cardinality (one-to-many, coordinated, and so on) Information Dictionary for Proposed Systems Present at any rate THREE information Dictionary for any of the Attribute/Process/Entity inside your venture. Plainly show Data streams, Data Stores, Processes, Source and Sink, where material. Graphical User Interfaces (GUIs) * Discuss the principals that you have considered/applied into making the GUI of your framework. Incorporate the principals of Human Computer Interaction (HCI) where relevant. Prototyping * The task expects you to utilize a contemporary prototyping apparatus that allows the improvement of graphical UIs (GUIs) to build up a model. * Visual Basic is the suggested programming condition. Different apparatuses, for example, Delphi, PowerBuilder, Visual CafÃ£ ©, PHP and so on are permitted. * NOTE: You are not required to deliver a completely practical program, (for example, consideration of database and online segments) which might be past the extent of this module. PART-B Ã¢â¬ INDIVIDUAL COMPONENT Choice of Methodology This part includes singular (part) commitment to this task. Every part is required to pick and clarify an appropriate (particular) system for the venture. The entire conversation ought not surpass 800 words. * Compare and select a reasonable IS advancement philosophy for this your case. Express the purposes behind your decision. * Explain the reason, structure and extent of the procedure. Incorporate any systems or potentially outlines as help. * Explain in detail how your task will be created by the philosophy. Incorporate the instruments and strategies that are suggested inside the technique and their utilization in your undertaking. * The utilization of the philosophy ought to be expounded at your the last introduction. Venture Presentation * Present your answer and recommendation including clarification of each segment of your subjects. * A demo of your real model. * A definite introduction of your individual segment. - Task Deliverables and Conditions: * Your gathering needs to turn in the gathering contextual analysis on the due date referenced on the spread sheet of the task, with all the vital parts as recommended previously. Unmistakably sapparate and show the Group part and Individual segment in your documentation. * Final Documentation must be word prepared, imprinted in A4 size paper (twofold sided preffered) and expertly bound. The limit of 5000 words is suggested. * Please think about nature and dont print superfluously. Incorporate all your work (duplicate) into an optical plate, to be joined to the documentation. This could be utilized to filter for unoriginality. Any extra/excess materials could likewise be incorporated into the optical circle.. * Include the rundown of references/list of sources and indeces where essential. * Include a Ã¢â¬ËWorkload MatrixÃ¢â¬â¢, demonstrating the commitment of every person for each necessary segment (appeared in rate) and ought to be closed down by each colleague, joined to the APPENDIX part of the last report. * The introduction will be directed by the date time designated to each gathering. Late entries won't be evaluated except if uncontrollable issues at hand are maintained.
Saturday, August 22, 2020
In his article paper Ã¢â¬Å"More Testing. More Learning,Ã¢â¬ Patrick OÃ¢â¬â¢Malley suggests that as often as possible testing during class would enable the understudies to learn and concentrate more. This would assist with expanding studentÃ¢â¬â¢s exhibitions, yet it would likewise profit understudies who are managing nervousness. Other than lingering understudies wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have the option to set their work aside. OÃ¢â¬â¢Malley thinks he thought of the ideal arrangement: a test after each unit or section, when a week or if nothing else twice month to month, a few inquiries that donÃ¢â¬â¢t contain different decision or short Ã¢â¬ answers and the test ought to be just 15 Ã¢â¬ 20 minutes in length. OÃ¢â¬â¢MalleyÃ¢â¬â¢s contentions and studies don't generally contain the essential data to help his position. A portion of the contentions and arrangements OÃ¢â¬â¢Malley recommend all through his paper even subvert his proposition. OÃ¢â¬â¢Malley accepts Ã¢â¬Å"the principle reason that educators should give visit tests is that Ã¢â¬ ¦ they [would] give feedbackÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ I concur that criticism is extremely imperative to realize how well you are getting along in class, however there are different approaches to give input to understudies. We will compose a custom paper test on My Views on Patrick OMalleys Ã¢â¬Å"More Testing, More LearningÃ¢â¬ or on the other hand any comparative point explicitly for you Don't WasteYour Time Recruit WRITER Just 13.90/page OÃ¢â¬â¢Malley bolsters his contention with a Harvard Study. Ã¢â¬Å"[Harvard Students] accept they learn most in courses with Ã¢â¬Ëmany chances to perceive how they are doingÃ¢â¬â¢. Understudies trust it is significant that instructors give criticism, yet in the Harvard study OÃ¢â¬â¢Malley is utilizing, the understudies donÃ¢â¬â¢t talk about input they overcome testing. Ã¢â¬Å"A ongoing Harvard study notesÃ¢â¬ ¦ understudies feel they learn least in courses that have Ã¢â¬Ëonly a midterm and a last test of the year, with no other individual assessment. Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ (Light. Qtd in OÃ¢â¬â¢Malley) The Harvard studyÃ¢â¬â¢s fundamental center is tied in with giving input to the understudies, on the grounds that Ã¢â¬Å"[a] ongoing Harvard study notes studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬Ëstrong inclination for visit assessment in a course. Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ (OÃ¢â¬â¢Malley). While OÃ¢â¬â¢MalleyÃ¢â¬â¢s fundamental concentration in his proposition paper is on all the more testing, what makes this investigation unimportant for OÃ¢â¬â¢MalleyÃ¢â¬â¢s paper. I do accept criticism is extremely significant, on the grounds that like I prior stated, it shows how well you are getting along in class. What's more, by following up on your input you can improve your aptitudes. Consider criticism from articles, input from assignments, criticism from ventures, and so on. The second examination OÃ¢â¬â¢Malley makes reference to is a survey of a few investigations dependent on understudy learning. Ã¢â¬Å"[Students] who take week by week tests accomplish higher scores on last examsÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (Frederikson) This investigation looks pertinent, in light of the fact that this is the thing that OÃ¢â¬â¢MalleyÃ¢â¬â¢s paper is about, additionally testing will bring better outcomes. Be that as it may, in the event that we investigate, OÃ¢â¬â¢Malley doesn't give us enough data. Most importantly the investigation dates from the year 1984 what makes this examination off base. A subsequent blemish is the reality OÃ¢â¬â¢Malley doesn't give us more data about the tests. There is a likelihood that the tests are old style where, toward the start of the class, the instructor poses inquiries and afterward haphazardly picks somebody to reply. The test can likewise be open book, where understudies get inquiries on paper to reply and can utilize their books and notes. There are various ways how teachers can give a test. Likewise the substance of the test is significant. At the point when you pose open inquiries, you can test the understudies on their insight, on the grounds that with different decision, understudies can figure on the off chance that they donÃ¢â¬â¢t know the appropriate response and still have the appropriate response right. A third imperfection is the way that OÃ¢â¬â¢Malley is discussing teachers, that they should give visit tests so they would give input to the understudies. In this investigation Frederikson isn't discussing input understudies get from week by week tests. He is discussing the reality understudies information increments when they take week by week tests. In the event that OÃ¢â¬â¢Malley had give us more nitty gritty data than this investigation would possibly have been important. Another contention that OÃ¢â¬â¢Malley call attention to is that Ã¢â¬Å" [greater] recurrence in test taking methods more prominent recurrence in reading for testsÃ¢â¬â¢, yet that implies that understudies would need to make time to read for each class they take each week on the long periods of schoolwork they have to do. I accept he is making a valid statement, however he guarantees [if] understudies had visit tests in the entirety of their courses, they would need to plan study time Ã¢â¬ ¦ [and] build up a propensity for visit study time. Ã¢â¬ For a full time understudy that would possibly be sensible, however there would be an opportunity of a lifetime that a few understudies wonÃ¢â¬â¢t have the option to have available time between their classes, schoolwork and contemplating. OÃ¢â¬â¢Malley doesn't consider understudies that are consolidating their investigations with work, or individuals that join their examinations and have a family. Notwithstanding the incessant considering, OÃ¢â¬â¢Malley believes that it would diminish uneasiness and understudies would not have the option to stall, to demonstrate his point he is utilizing consequences of an investigation that is just founded on one college. Ã¢â¬Å"Researchers at the University of Vermont found a solid relationship among procrastination,Ã¢ anxiety and accomplishments. Ã¢â¬ (OÃ¢â¬â¢Malley) OÃ¢â¬â¢Malley doesn't demonstrate that the exploration was done on understudies that are going to this college, neither what number of understudies partook and if the understudies were going to on a full-time or low maintenance base. He doesn't let us know whether the test is precise or not furthermore that, there are no other studiesÃ¢â¬â¢ OÃ¢â¬â¢Malley uses to contrast and. OÃ¢â¬â¢Malley doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have a major help with this examination, since it has an absence of data. So this exploration doesn't demonstrate in the event that it would assist understudies with nervousness and dawdling among different colleges. In my view, originating from a family from instructors including myself, I accept that regular examining would profit understudies in specific zones like tension, lingering, and so forth. Be that as it may, there is no assurance that it would, on the grounds that we can't order understudies as per their character or capacities. Each understudy is extraordinary and there are a ton of variables that discover that, consider pressure, study propensities, individual needs, their experience, and so forth. You have understudies that pay attention to their investigations and would effectively accomplish their objective, some of them need to buckle down and for other people, it very well may be simple. While different understudies are glad on the off chance that they go with the base necessities. And afterward you have the understudies that are simply going to school so they would not need to enter the work field yet. I firmly trust it isn't the duty of the instructors, in school, to help the understudies how to concentrate by giving more in-class testing. It is the studentÃ¢â¬â¢s choices on the off chance that the individual accepts visit examining would help, and provided that this is true, to really do it. When OÃ¢â¬â¢Malley portrays the contradicting contentions in his paper he reacts on them with another option, yet that meddles with his optimal arrangement. One of those restricting contentions contains the constrained time there is accessible in class. OÃ¢â¬â¢MalleyÃ¢â¬â¢s arrangement would be in - class testing Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ could be decreased to each other week or their length to 5 or 10 minutes. Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"In courses where various decision tests are fitting, a few inquiries could be intended to take just a couple of moments to reply. Ã¢â¬ (OÃ¢â¬â¢Malley) The arrangement he gives here is not quite the same as the perfect he proposes. Consistently testing, changes into each other week while the perfect length is 15 to 20 minutes, he diminishes it to 5 till 10 minutes. Likewise the different Ã¢â¬ decision answers and the short answer on question is something contrary to what he needs in his optimal arrangement. Something very similar happens when OÃ¢â¬â¢Malley discusses Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦frequent examsÃ¢â¬ ¦take an excessive amount of time to peruse and grade. Ã¢â¬ He gives arrangements as skimming through the content; no letter grade yet an or more, less or check; tests each third or fourth week; and so forth. These arrangements thoroughly subvert his own proposition, on the grounds that here OÃ¢â¬â¢Malley proposes in class test only one out of every odd other week any longer, yet goes now to each third or fourth week. In his proposition OÃ¢â¬â¢Malley clarifies that week after week testing is significant, in light of the fact that it would give understudies input on how they are getting along and to make a continuous report propensity. On the off chance that the in Ã¢â¬ class testing would be each third or fourth week than you canÃ¢â¬â¢t make a successive report propensity. Likewise if the course is semester based or trimester based, than that would imply that you get 3 or 4 test for each course. You canÃ¢â¬â¢t classify that under often testing. Skimming through an article would not give the understudies of the criticism they need. At the point when you skim through a content, you can get a general thought of what the content is about. In the event that teachers need to give you input on something they go quick through than the possibility is large the criticism will be general as well. What doesn't profit understudies, provided that they get a general criticism like Ã¢â¬Å"your exposition was awful, you should transform it. Ã¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"you are working superbly. Ã¢â¬ Than the understudy doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t get enough data what might assist him with improving or improve next time. In his decision OÃ¢â¬â¢Malley sees Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦brief Ã¢â¬ in class examsÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ as the main arrangement, on the grounds that Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ [itÃ¢â¬â¢s] the best way to improve studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ study propensities and learning, lessen [students] uneasiness and stalling, and increment their fulfillment with school. Grounds heads ought to get together behind thi
Wednesday, August 19, 2020
Were going to Chicago! COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY - SIPA Admissions Blog Thinking about going back to school? The first question you ask yourself is what do you want to study? The second question is where do you go to pursue your studies? The Public Service Graduate School Fair brings together representatives of some of the nationâs top graduate programs in public policy and international affairs with highly qualified individuals who are interested in making a difference. So if this is your thing, come meet us on Friday, June 20, 2014 from 1:30 PM to 3:30 PM at the University of Chicago. Young professionals, undergraduates, and recent grads alike can benefit from the expertise and guidance they can access through this event. Learn about the graduate school admissions process! Attendees of this Graduate School Fair receive access to key decision makers in the admissions process at the nationâs top policy and international affairs schools. Prospective applicants have an opportunity to ask questions about various policy programs, what makes a strong candidate, and carefully consider which programs align with their interests and careers. Recognizing the importance of networks, this event provides a crucial meeting point for students to exchange of ideas, information, and inspiration. Register today Participating Graduate Schools American University, School of International Service Carnegie Mellon University, John H. Heinz III College Columbia University, School of International and Public Affairs Duke, Sanford School of Public Policy Georgetown, Edmund A. Walsh School of Foreign Service Harvard University, Harvard Kennedy School Indiana University â" Bloomington, School of Public Environmental Affairs Johns Hopkins University, Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies Princeton University Woodrow Wilson School of Public Policy International Affairs Science Po, Paris School of International Affairs Syracuse, Maxwell School of Citizenship Public Affairs Texas AM, The Bush School of Government and Public Service The George Washington University, The Elliott School of International Affairs Tufts, The Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy University of California, San Diego, School of International Relations Pacific Studies University of Denver, Josef Korbel School of International Studies Date: Friday, June 20, 2014 1:30 PM to 3:30 PM Location: The University of Chicago School of Social Service Administration 969 E. 60th Street Chicago, IL 60637
Sunday, May 24, 2020
The lack of standard concepts in research is perhaps the most significant difficulty in the comparison of results between studies. In the running injury field, many researchers have noted the problem of how to define a running-related injury.[2-4] Some investigators have suggested the need for a standardised definition of running-related injury.[2, 5-7] However, a consensus has not yet been reached; thus, researchers have used different definitions in their studies.[3, 8, 9] Currently, the rates of prevalence and incidence of running injuries vary between 19% and 92%, depending on the injury definition adopted in the study. This means that the lack of standardisation of injury definitions may affect study results.[2, 3, 5, 9-15] For instance, Bovens, et al.  used a broad definition of running-related injury as Ã¢â¬Å"any physical complaint developed in relation with running activities and causing restriction in running distance, speed, duration or frequencyÃ¢â¬ ; they found an injury incidence of 84.9%. On the other hand, Blair, et al.  adopted a more stringent definition of running-related injury as Ã¢â¬Å"an injury that causes the runners to stop running for at least seven daysÃ¢â¬ ; they found a lower injury incidence of 24%. The higher rate of injury found in the first study may be due to the lack of a specific period of interruption or time off from running in the definition used, in contrast to the definition used in the second study, w hich clearly specifies the period ofShow MoreRelatedThe Health Impacts Of Long Term Exposure Essay1157 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe purpose of this report is to determine and evaluate the health impacts of long-term exposure to PM2.5 in Delhi. Several possible self-protective solutions for people in Delhi will be discussed. Researches are done by critically comparing, summarizing and analyzing the data from academic articles. Delhi pollution control committee is proposed to be our client. The ambient PM2.5 in Delhi is 15 times higher than the WHO guidelines, which is identified as the most significant pollutants threateningRead MoreThe Effects Of Air Pollution On Human Health Essay1381 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesair pollution level in Delhi and compare the levels before and after Diwali 6. To find the level of pollution caused by different sources and the data supporting it. 7. To analyze the level of pollution in Delhi by comparing it to prescribed limits prescribed by various institutions. 8. To study the effects of air pollution on human health by secondary data sources and interviews conducted by our group. 9. To study the effects of air pollution on the floral life. 10. To study the data given by theRead MoreThe New Delhi School System1256 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesworld, a long standing one that has gone on is in New Delhi, India where they have struggled with the right to education in their public schools. 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North eastRead MoreReliance Fresh Project Reports1678 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"CONSUMER PERCEPTION AND THEIR BUYING BEHAVIOUR TOWARDS Ã¢â¬Å"RELIANCE FRESHÃ¢â¬ SUPERMARKETS NEW DELHI, INDIA.Ã¢â¬ Chapter 1: Introduction Reliance Retail: Retailing is the interface between the producer and the individual consumer buying for personal consumption. This excludes direct interface between the manufacturer and institutional buyers such as the government and other bulk customers. A retailer is one who stocks the producerÃ¢â¬â¢s goods and is involved in the act ofRead MoreFactors Favoring Managerial Effectiveness : A Study Of Select Public And Private Sector Organizations Essay1509 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages(2012) Ã¢â¬ËFactors favoring managerial effectiveness: a study of select public and private sector organizationsÃ¢â¬â¢, International Journal of Business Economics and Management Research, 2(1), Pp. 1-27. Adewuyi, D. (2002) Ã¢â¬ËComparison between school effectiveness characteristics and classroom instruction strategies in the United States and NigeriaÃ¢â¬â¢, Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa, XXVI, Pp. 263-287. Agarwal, V. (1983) Ã¢â¬ËA study of stress proneness adjustment and job satisfactionRead MoreCharacteristics Of Effective Leadership Behavior Of Secondary School Principals Essay1540 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesP. (1990) Ã¢â¬ËA study of the characteristics of effective leadership behaviour of secondary school PrincipalsÃ¢â¬â¢, Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda. Cited in MB. Buch Fifth Survey of Educational Research (Vol. II) NCERT, New Delhi, Pp.879-880. DFID (2000) Ã¢â¬ËPoverty Elimination and the Empowerment of Women Gender Inequality poverty and human DevelopmentÃ¢â¬â¢, UNESCO Publication. Diwan, R. (1993) Ã¢â¬ËPhD (Education) in MB. Buch Sixth Survey of Educational ResearchÃ¢â¬â¢ (Vol. II) NCERT, New Delhi, Pp. 503-504
Wednesday, May 13, 2020
There are two related science definitions for the term aether, as well as other non-scientific meanings. (1) Aether was the fifth element in alchemical chemistryÃ and early physics. It was the name given to the material that was believed to fill the universe beyond the terrestrial sphere. The belief in aether as an element was held by medieval alchemists, Greeks, Buddhists, Hindus, the Japanese, and the Tibetan Bon. Ancient Babylonians believed the fifth element to be the sky. The fifth element in the Chinese Wu-Xing was metal rather than aether.(2) Aether was also considered the medium that carried light waves in space by 18th and 19th Century scientists. Luminiferous ether was proposed in order to explain the capacity of light to propagate through apparently empty space. The Michelson-Morley experiment (MMX) led scientists to realize there was no aether and that light was self-propagating. Key Takeaways: Aether Definition in Science While there are several definitions of aether, only two pertain to science.The first is that aether was believed to be the substance that filled invisible space. In early history, this substance was believed to be an element.The second definition was that luminiferous aether was the medium through which light traveled. The Michelson-Morley experiment in 1887 demonstrated light did not require a medium for propagation.In modern physics, aether is most often connoted with a vacuum or three-dimensional space devoid of matter. Michelson-Morley Experiment and Aether The MMX experiment was performed at what is now Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio in 1887 by Albert A. Michelson and Edward Morley. The experiment used an interferometer to compare the speed of light in perpendicular directions. The point of the experiment was to determine the relative motion of matter through the aether wind or luminiferous aether. It was believed light required a medium in order to move, similar to the way sound waves require a medium (e.g., water or air) to propagate. Since it was known light could travel in a vacuum, it was believed the vacuum must be filled with a substance called aether. Since the Earth would revolve around the Sun through the aether, there would be a relative motion between the Earth and the aether (the aether wind). Thus, the speed of light would be affected by whether the light was moving in the direction of the Earths orbit or perpendicular to it. The negative results were published in the same year and followed up with exp eriments of increased sensitivity. The MMX experiment led to the development of the theory of special relativity, which does not rely on any aether for the propagation of electromagnetic radiation. The Michelson-Morley experiment is considered to be the most famous failed experiment. (3) The word aether or ether may be used to describe apparently empty space. In Homeric Greek, the word aether refers to the clear sky or pure air. It was believed to be the pure essence breathed by gods, while man required air to breathe. In the modern usage, aether simply refers to invisible space (e.g., I lost my email to the aether.) Alternate Spellings: Ãâ ther, ether, luminous aether, luminiferous aether, aether wind, light-bearing ether Commonly Confused With: Aether is not the same thing as the chemical substance, ether, which is the name given to a class of compounds containing an ether group. An ether group consists of an oxygen atom connected to two aryl groups or alkyl groups. Aether Symbol in Alchemy Unlike many alchemical elements, aether does not have a commonly accepted symbol. Most often, it was represented by a simple circle. Sources Born, Max (1964). Einsteins Theory of Relativity. Dover Publications. ISBN 978-0-486-60769-6.Duursma, Egbert (Ed.) (2015). Etherons as Predicted by Ioan-Iovitz Popescu in 1982. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform. ISBN 978-1511906371.Kostro, L. (1992). An outline of the history of Einsteins relativistic ether concept. in Jean Eisenstaedt; Anne J. Kox (eds.), Studies in the History of General Relativity, 3. Boston-Basel-Berlin: BirkhÃ ¤user, pp. 260Ã¢â¬â280. ISBN 978-0-8176-3479-7.Schaffner, Kenneth F. (1972). Nineteenth-Century Aether Theories. Oxford: Pergamon Press. ISBN 978-0-08-015674-3.Whittaker, Edmund Taylor (1910). A History of the Theories of Aether and Electricity (1st ed.). Dublin: Longman, Green and Co.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
The intent of this survey was to measure the lower appendage isokinetic musculus strength, to find affected musculus groups and their dependance on motion speed, and to happen out the relationship between musculus strength and clinical badness, every bit good as musculus strength and falls, in Parkinson Ã¢â¬Ës disease ( PD ) . Twenty-five patients diagnosed with PD and 24 healthy voluntaries were enrolled in this survey. The lower appendage musculus strength was evaluated with an isokinetic ergometer. We will write a custom essay sample on Isokinetic Muscle Strength In Patients Health And Social Care Essay or any similar topic only for you Order Now Clinical position was examined in conformity with the Unified Parkinson Ã¢â¬Ës Disease Rating Scale ; autumn history was besides recorded. We have observed that there was a important lessening in isokinetic musculus strength in the patient group, particularly in both of the hip and articulatio genus flexors and extensors. It has been found that reduced musculus strength was independent of speed, and correlated with clinical badness and falls. In decision, motion velocity-independent lower appendage isokinetic musculus failing has been observed in patients with PD, particularly in the articulatio genus and hip articulations. Therefore, the rating of isokinetic musculus strength may be a utile tool for the appraisal of clinical badness and falls in PD. Keywords: Parkinson Ã¢â¬Ës disease ; Isokinetic ; Muscle strength ; Lower appendage 1. Introduction Parkinson Ã¢â¬Ës disease ( PD ) is a common neurodegenerative status in which patients typically experience troubles such as awkwardness of motions ( bradykinesia ) , stiffness of the musculuss ( rigidness ) , shudder, balance perturbations, and progressive lessening in motor functions.1-3 When combined with multiple other factors, decreased musculus strength can take to falls among aged patients, doing breaks, joint disruptions, terrible soft tissue lesions, and caput trauma.4,5 As a back uping fact, the autumn rate is higher among those with PD compared to healthy aged persons, harmonizing to the clinical image of the disease.4,6 Muscle failing is one of the chief symptoms of PD.7 In recent clinical tests, decreased musculus strength has been observed in patients with PD.8-12 Kakinuma et al.12 measured the isokinetic musculus strength on articulatio genus extension and iÃ ¬Ã¢â¬Å¡exion, and they observed isokinetic strength decrease on the side that is more greatly affected by PD. In another survey, Nallegowda et al.9 tested the bole, hip, and ankle flexor and extensor musculuss Ã¢â¬Ë strengths utilizing isokinetic measuring, and reported a lessening in strength in all the flexor and extensor musculus groups. Pedersen et al.10 obtained lower isokinetic homocentric torsion consequences compared to command topics on quantitative appraisal of dorsiiÃ ¬Ã¢â¬Å¡exors. Inkster et al.11 observed that decreased strength at the hip muscles is an of import subscriber to the trouble in lifting from a chair among patients with PD. Finally, Nogaki et al.8,13 hypothesized that musculus failing in PD is likely to depend on motion speed. In contrast to the isokinetic ratings mentioned supra, there are some surveies in which quantitative isotonic and isometric musculus strengths have been evaluated.7,14,15 So far, there has been no survey in the literature that evaluated the isokinetic strength of the hip, articulatio genus, and ankle articulations together. There are some limited surveies, nevertheless, that evaluated the musculus groups at different isokinetic speeds in the lower extremity13, every bit good as the correlativity between musculus strength, and clinical position and falls9 among patients with PD. In this survey, we evaluate the lower appendage flexor and extensor isokinetic musculus strength at the hip, articulatio genus, and ankle articulations in patients with PD. We aim to happen out which musculus groups and motion speeds of the lower appendage are more greatly affected by the disease, and we seek to detect the relationship between musculus failing, and clinical position and falls. 2. Materials and Methods 2.1. Patients This survey was designed as a cross-sectional, controlled survey. The patients included in this work were from the outpatient clinics of the Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, and Neurology Departments, and were diagnosed with PD harmonizing to the United Kingdom Parkinson Ã¢â¬Ës Disease Society Brain Bank criteria.9 The survey was approved by the local ethical commission at the Inonu University School of Medicine and carried out in conformity with the rules in the Declaration of Helsinki. Written consent was obtained from all the participants. Twenty-five patients ( 17 males and 8 females ) were included in the survey. The average age of the patients was 62.1AÃ ±10.3 ( with a scope of 42-81 ) old ages. All patients were at Hoehn A ; Yahr phase II or III, and were having intervention for PD. None of the patients had any serious orthopedic, neurological, vestibular, or ocular upset that could impact their musculus strength, and all of them could walk unsupported. Twenty-four healthy voluntaries ( 13 males and 11 females ) with no orthopedic, neurological, or other diseases constituted the control group, which was age-matched with the patient group. 2.2. Appraisals 2.2.1. The Unified Parkinson Ã¢â¬Ës Disease Rating Scale ( UPDRS ) and Hoehn A ; Yahr presenting Patients were assessed with the usage of the Unified Parkinson Ã¢â¬Ës Disease Rating Scale ( UPDRS ) portion II Ã¢â¬Ëactivities of day-to-day populating Ã¢â¬Ë ( UPDRS-ADL ) and portion III Ã¢â¬Ëmotor scrutiny Ã¢â¬Ë ( UPDRS-ME ) 16, and Hoehn A ; Yahr staging.17 2.2.2. Fall history We used a standard definition for autumn, which is Ã¢â¬Å" accidentally coming to rest on the land, floor, or other lower degree. Ã¢â¬Å" 18 For the interest of coherence with the definition, coming to rest against furniture or a wall was non accepted as a autumn. The figure of falls was determined utilizing self-reported autumn events during the past 6 months. 2.2.3. Isokinetic musculus strength Isokinetic musculus strength trials were administered in the forenoon before the patients took any medical specialty. Patients foremost warmed up for 10 proceedingss on a bike dynamometer with a burden of 1 W/kg. We used the Biodex System 3 Pro ( Biodex, Inc. , Shirley, NY, USA ) isokinetic ergometer for the isokinetic measurings. During the trials, the patients were stabilized with seat belts in order to supply joint stabilisation and to forestall them from falling off the trial chair. All trials were performed on both appendages. The isokinetic protocol consisted of trials at three angular motion speeds of 90, 120, and 150 degrees/sec at 10 revolutions per minute, with a 5-min remainder period between trials. We followed the same process for hip flexion-extension, knee flexion-extension, and ankle plantar/dorsiflexion. The articulatio genus and mortise joint trials were performed in a seated place, while a supine place was used to find hip flexure and extension strength. All trials were performed for homocentric musculus strength every bit good, where the maximal extremum torsion ( Nm ) was recorded at each angular velocity.9 2.3. Statistical analysis We used the SPSS 16.0 package for statistical rating of the trial consequences ( SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA ) . The normalcy for uninterrupted variables in groups was determined by the Shapiro-Wilk trial. We used Student Ã¢â¬Ës t-test or Mann-Whitney U trial for comparings, whereas Spearman Ã¢â¬Ës rank correlativity trial was used for analysis of informations. For correlativity analysis, the mean musculus strength was calculated at 90, 120, and 150 degree/sec angular motion speeds over the entire values for the hip, articulatio genus, and ankle musculuss. A p value of less than 0.05 was taken as the degree of significance. 3. Consequences The descriptive features of the patient and control groups are presented in Table 1. It can be observed from the tabular array that there was no statistically important difference between the two groups in age, weight, and tallness. The average disease continuance was 5.6AÃ ±3.9 ( with a scope of 1-15 ) old ages. Fifteen patients ( 60 % ) were in Hoehn A ; Yahr phase II, and 10 ( 40 % ) were in phase III. In the patient group, the UPDRS ME and ADL tonss were 26.3AÃ ±12 and 8.9AÃ ±5, severally. During the last 6 months, the figure of lumbermans in the patient group was 12 ( 48 % ) , compared to merely 4 ( 16.7 % ) in the control group ( P lt ; 0.05 ) . The mean figure of falls was found to be 0.9AÃ ±1.1 in the patient group and 0.2AÃ ±0.5 in the control group ( P lt ; 0.001 ) . The isokinetic musculus strength of the patient and control groups is shown in Table 2. At all speeds, the musculus strength of hip flexors ( P lt ; 0.01 ) and extensors ( P lt ; 0.05 ) was found to be significantly less in the patient group. Similarly, compared with the control group ( P lt ; 0.05 ) , we observed a important lessening in the musculus strength of articulatio genus flexors and extensors in the patient group, irrespective of the speed. Furthermore, the isokinetic extremum torsions of ankle plantar- and dorsiflexor musculuss exhibited significantly smaller values at certain motion speeds in the patient group ( P lt ; 0.05 ) . We observed a considerable relationship between musculus strength and figure of falls ( P lt ; 0.01 ) . The correlativity between musculus strength and Hoehn A ; Yahr phase was statistically important. There was besides a strong correlativity between musculus strength and all UPDRS tonss ( P lt ; 0.01 ) . However, there was no correlativity between musculus strength and disease continuance. 4. Discussion The lower appendage musculus strength is known to hold a outstanding consequence on mobility. So far, there have non been any surveies in the literature that evaluated the overall flexor and extensor musculus strength in the hip, articulatio genus, and ankle articulations in patients with PD, although several surveies have evaluated the musculus strength in merely one or two articulations separately10,12,13. In this survey, we assessed musculus strength with an isokinetic ergometer in an effort to find which musculus groups were more greatly affected, and at which of the evaluated motion speeds, and to measure their correlativity with clinical position and falls. While many surveies have evaluated isokinetic musculus strength before ( off province ) and after ( on province ) medicine, we chose to prove all the patients in the forenoon after backdown of medicine ( off province ) . The chief ground for this pick is to govern out the effects of medicine while measuring the musculus fail ing that exists as portion of the nature of PD. The positive effects of antiparkinsonian agents on musculus strength have already been shown in many studies9,19 and are outside the range of this survey. Nallegowda et al.9 evaluated the isokinetic musculus strength at the bole, hip, and ankle flexor and extensor musculuss at 90, 120, and 150 degree/sec angular speeds, which are the same as the 1s used in our survey. They found a important difference in all musculus groups between patients who did non take medicine and the healthy control group. In contrast, we evaluated the articulatio genus flexor and extensor musculus strength alternatively of the bole flexor and extensor musculus strength. As a consequence, we observed a important failing in all hip and articulatio genus musculuss at all evaluated speeds, every bit good as in mortise joint musculuss at some certain speeds. There was besides pronounced musculus failing in the hip flexors compared to the other musculus groups. Hip flexors are the major gas pedals in the swing stage of the gait.20 The trouble in gait induction in patients with PD may lend to the apparent failing of the hip flexors. However, Bartels et al.21 suggested that freeze of pace was non correlated with bradykinesia. Alternatively, ankle musculus strength is more of import in forestalling falls and for proper pace. Less terrible mortise joint musculus failing than the other musculus groups demonstrates the importance of other factors like proprioception. Zia et al.22 pointed out the damage of joint place sense in patients with PD. These consequences suggest the possibility of different underlying diseased mechanisms. Pedersen et al.10 evaluated the mortise joint dorsiflexor isokinetic musculus strength both concentrically and eccentrically, and found significantly lower values for the homocentric musculus strength at all motion speeds compared to the control group, while the bizarre musculus strength was different from the control group merely in male patients. Kakinuma et al.12 separated the topics into two groups harmonizing to their holding more- or less-affected appendage, and found that the isokinetic musculus strength decreased at both the slow and fast motion speeds during the early period of the disease. They besides observed that the difference in musculus strength between the more- and the less-affected appendages decreased in the advanced phase of the disease. Our survey and the surveies mentioned above 9,10,12 demonstrated no relation between the reduced musculus strength and the motion speeds. Nogaki et al.13 found a important lessening in the peak torsion of the isokinetic musculus strength compared to the less-affected appendage at high motion speeds but no difference between the two appendages at lower motion speeds. Therefore, the observation of increased musculus failing at higher motion speeds, which was proposed in the survey by Nogaki et al.13, is comparable with the determination in our survey. Although Corcos et al.23 indicated an asymmetric distribution of musculus failing, our survey has shown the common musculus failing in patients with PD to be similar to those found in the survey by Nallegowda et al.9 In some studies9,13, the importance of the cardinal consequence on musculus failing was emphasized, but the consequence of immobilisation was non considered in patients with PD. The effects of immobilisation on musculus failing should be noted, particularly in aged patients with PD. Assorted surveies reported the hazard of falling in those with PD to run from 38 to 70 % 2,4,9. Our consequences sing the per centum of patients who have suffered from falls were similar. There was a important relationship between falling and musculus strength, but we have non come across any surveies on the association of musculus strength with falls in patients with PD. Some authors24,25 have observed musculus failing at lower appendage as a hazard factor for falling. Therefore, the hazard of falling may be examined in connexion with lower appendage isokinetic musculus strength in patients with PD. We found a pronounced correlativity between musculus strength, and UPDRS ME and ADL tonss. Since the UPDRS ME and ADL tonss are related to clinical position, we had already expected to happen such correlativity between these parametric quantities and musculus strength. The UPDRS is a often used measuring for measuring the clinical state of affairs of patients with PD.26 Given the important correlativity between musculus strength and the UPDRS, isokinetic musculus strength may be used to measure clinical position of patients. Disease patterned advance in PD was evaluated utilizing Hoehn A ; Yahr presenting. Increased disease badness ( aÃ¢â¬ °?stage III ) leads to more pronounced locomotor system abnormality.27 Most of our patients were in Hoehn A ; Yahr phase II. As can be seen in Table 3, there appeared a important correlativity between isokinetic musculus strength and Hoehn A ; Yahr phase. Muscle failing in our patients was non outstanding, as they were at an early phase of PD. It seems musculus failing is related to clinical badness instead than disease continuance. The chief restrictions of our survey are the unequal figure of patients and the absence of lower speeds, such as 60 degrees/sec, at which isokinetic musculus strength could be evaluated. In drumhead, we found a important lessening in bilateral hip, articulatio genus, and ankle flexor and extensor isokinetic musculus strength, which was particularly outstanding in the hip muscles at 90, 120, and 150 degree/sec angular motion speeds. In add-on, we detected a relationship between disease badness and musculus failing. Furthermore, a important correlativity was besides present between musculus strength, and UPDRS ME and ADL tonss. Finally, there was a pronounced association between musculus strength and figure of falls. 5. Decisions Taking the consequences of our survey into consideration, we have shown that although musculus strength decreased in the lower appendage, particularly in the hip and articulatio genus, musculus failing was non associated with the speeds at which it was evaluated in this survey. We have demonstrated that the rating of musculus failing degree may be a utile tool for the appraisal of clinical badness and autumn hazard in patients with PD. It should be noted, nevertheless, that conflicting old consequences and the deficiency of specific criterions necessitate farther surveies. Recognition The writers would wish to thank Associate Professor Saim Yologlu ( Department of Statistics, Inonu University School of Medicine ) for his sort part to this survey. How to cite Isokinetic Muscle Strength In Patients Health And Social Care Essay, Essay examples
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Discuss about the Sustainability Strategy Analysisfor Globalization. Answer: Introduction An entire system is a set of different parts that are interrelated and work towards a shared goal. System thinking approach is very much necessary to deal with different problems of sustainability as it overviews the problems and its related things from a macroscopic view (Mihelcic and Zimmerman 2014). In todays life, the system thinking has been utilized by several business practitioners; however, this approach was first derived by Professor Jay Forrester in the year 1956. There is a major difference between the system thinking approach and the traditional thinking approach. The traditional thinking approach generally focuses on whatever has been studied, whereas the system thinking approach focuses on the interrelationship between different components of the system (Wiek et al. 2014). It cannot be denied that the world is now moving towards more globalization and industrialization. Therefore in this era, the business world is facing numerous complex situations in the upcoming years . The significant raise in the numbers of female employees involved in the senior executive roles in the Australian corporations is one of the serious and significant issues in this globalized era. Therefore this essay will critically discuss and support the arguments which favours that system thinking is always helpful while dealing with this wicked problem. The Approach of System Thinking while Dealing with Sustainability Changes System thinking approach is a constructive process to deal with the issues of sustainability as this approach always considers these things from a closer point of view. While discussing with both the traditional analysis approach and system thinking approach, it can be easily derived that the system thinking approach help more in dealing with the complicated problems (Haines 2016). Therefore the system test is a significant part in the system thinking approach. There are three significant part of the system test, those are elements, purpose and functions. The first section of the system test is the purpose, for which the system thinking approach has been adopted. The second part of the test is the elements, which works on several essentials of the system thinking. The last part is the functions that refer to the interrelationship between the essentials. It can be said that the development of computer and the information technology have made significant modifications to the sustainabl e society (Nguyen and Bosch 2013). The technology has also provided computational solutions to several complicated problems in the world. However the sustainability challenges requires to be solved in a more intense manner. The system approach will be useful in recognizing the interrelationship between human behaviour, technology, societal approach and other environment impacts on the society. Therefore, in todays society there is a continuous shift from the computational approach to the system thinking approach. The computational approach considers the usage of algorithms and programming while solving each and every complicated problem. This can be helpful on the one hand; however on the other hand the usage of computational thinking and using algorithms and calculations in every problem works as a limitation to the approach (Kunze, Wulfhorst and Minner 2016). There are always few problems which cannot be solved with the help of algorithms. For such problems individuals have to con sider the system thinking approach. The wicked problem that has been considered in this essay is one of such problems which cannot be solved with computational thinking. The system thinking entirely focuses on the essential elements of the system that will interact with other essential elements within the system. It is the nature of the system thinking approach that solves the complicated problems in the society. For instance, it can be said that system thinking approach is very much helpful while dealing the issues that includes the interrelationships between diverse actors in order to solve the complicated problems or the frequent problems that have not been resolved after sincere efforts in the past. These sustainability challenges are even called adaptive challenges as there are already established processes and protocols which will not be applied in such situations (Glasson and Gibbons 2015). However there is not unified process or any approach in dealing with the wicked sustainability challenges. System thinking can be considered to be quite useful to change the earlier mental models while dealing with the issue of sustainability as it will con tain few technologies, definite processes and a specified set of skills. Scholars have argued that mental models that use system thinking approach involves few particular steps such as, framing the problem while using a dynamic thinking process and the system as the cause thinking; making an understanding that uses operational thinking, generic thinking, and scientific thinking and a proper communication using the emphatic thinking (Martinuzzi, Sedlacko and Jaeger 2016). The Wicked Problem: Increasing Womens participation in the Senior Executive Roles in Australian Corporations The problems that are considered to be the wicked problems are generally complex in nature, unstable and have no clear solution to it. The issue of more women participating in the leadership roles in the Australian Corporations can be considered as a wicked problem as it is one of the most complex problems, not only in Australia, but also all around the world. Despite several evidences of the companies that the companies with more percentages of women in their workforce as performing in leadership jobs perform a lot better, especially in the financial matters, the upper stratums of the corporate world of Australia still remain male dominated (Bruni, Gherardi and Poggio 2014). After assessing the benefits of gender diversity, the organizations need to be meritocratic. However the definition of who has sufficient merit to get promoted and who does not does not occur excluding the gender bias and subjectivity that has always remained challenging in the practice. These have more occurren ces especially when it comes to the promotions or appointing women in the senior executive roles. Promotions should be done based on an unbiased evaluation of both the future potential of the individual that can be helpful in meeting the needs of the organization and their record of part performance. However, there can always be an issue with this assessment, as the past performance can be easily evaluated, but the assessment of the future potential is quite subjective and this is where the biased judgments occur. Therefore, it will not be much surprising if the meritocracy can be implemented and biases can be minimized, it will enhance the progress of the women in the senior leadership. However, it is always an uncomfortable truth that men still remain in the majority by the factor of six of the top executives in most of the Australian organizations (Wajcman 2013). The Workplace Gender Equality Agency has found in their research that while around thirty four percent of the senior managers i the corporate world are women, only sixteen percent CEOs are women especially in the priv ate sector organizations. However, the public sector of Australia presents a worse scenario, where only five percent of the CEOs are women. Therefore if any kind of significant changes are to see in such statistics and corporate situation, the decision makers needs to question their own mental model or the thinking process and hold onto new behaviours and hire more qualified women into the top executive levels in the Australian organizations (Klettner, Clarke and Boersma 2016). This may also indicate to hiring someone, who is entirely different from the previous employees. However, this is the most significant reason in hiring more male employees in the top executive roles, as to the management appointing a woman to a senior position seems to be risky than to appoint a man. Application of the System Thinking Approach to Deal with the Problem System thinking can offer numerous ways while dealing with the complicacy of the issue with increasing the numbers of women in the senior role and it will be an entirely new approach to the decision makers in the management. The system approach has already been suitable in dealing with the complex issues in the business world (Glasson and Gibbons 2015). The System approach will view this related issues from a much broader viewpoint to find out whether there is any interconnected links between the levels. A system thinking approach generally considers the significance of the situation and the circumstances under which the particular decision has been taken and the influence of the situations during the time of implementation. While a problem is being dealt under the system thinking approach, even a small change in one of the essential elements can have a huge impact on the rest and there can be a massive change in the decision. While dealing with this specific issue the management of such organization need to assess current scenario of the female employees in top positions. Generally it is more obvious that the concerned decision makers will feel more comfortable in employing or promoting someone who is similar to themselves (Bocken et al. 2014). Most of the decision makers in the management are male employees, therefore they also feel comfortable in appointing someone who have appointed in such roles in the past. However, the continuous scarcity of female employees in the senior posi tions indicates less female role models to be referred for the decision makers. Therefore, promoting or appointing a female employee in a senior position that may be hold by a male employee, needs a more careful and objective assessment of the attributes, skills and the experiences regardless of gender (Sheridan, Ross-Smith and Lord 2014). Therefore in such situations, system thinking approach will benefit the organizational decision as there can be a systematic process of evaluating all the components that are involved in the decision making. However, it is always comes as a challenge for any human being to overcome all the biases, whether it is unconscious or conscious, it has some amount of impact on the decisions. The previous researches over this matter has indicated that while appointing an executive or a manager, the decision makers in the management most of the times interpret the merit as the past experiences and generally that ends up being the people who think and act like the people in the management. However, the world has shifted from that idea far ago, therefore this is not supposed to work anymore. Therefore to be a more agile and consumer centric organizations, the management will need more versatile, broad minded and flexible people in the workforce who can have a clear approach towards the future requirements of the organization (Adapa, Rindfleish and Sheridan 2016). Therefore, in such situations, system thinking approach will be very much helpful. It is also important to have a circumstances where the i ncreasing in the numbers of women employees in the top executive roles as a wicked problem not as a simpler problem. Relevance of the System Thinking Approach However there are several other arguments that have opposed the relevance of the system thinking approach. Even if it has been argued that system thinking approach can solve the wicked problems, there are some researchers who have also argued that this approach basically considers the ideology of the technically efficient people or the planners. Therefore it would be difficult to deal with this specific gender bias issue following this approach. Another criticism of the approach says that the system thinking approach is a time consuming procedure, as it needs to introspect all the minor issues that are related with the issue. Therefore an organization with urgency of recruiting senior employees or having a load of recruitment process will not be able to follow this approach (Kunze, Wulfhorst and Minner 2016). However, if the organizations need to increase the number of female employees within their workforce, they need to value all the minor and microscopic issues that are related wi th the problem. Conclusion There are other criticisms regarding this approach where the scholars claim that the approach only considers the cybernetics model, therefore it will only consider the mechanistic model. It is also a fact that even if system thinking deals with the interaction between several elements, but it does not specify the nature if the particular interdependency. Therefore, I will agree to the statement of the essay that system thinking process is significant but there should always be experts who have the capability of understanding the mathematical model of the approach and numerous tools that can be used in the thinking process. Including this approach will enable the decision makers to see the sustainability challenges from a pluralistic and complex point of view. 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